p.164 - Meanings are produced in the interactions between text and audience. Meaning production is a dynamic act in which both elements contribute equally.
p. 165 - The reader and the text together produce the preferred meaning.... this is ideology at work.
p. 165 - Definitions of ideology by Raymond Williams (1977):
- A system of beliefs characteristic of a particular class or group.
- A system of illusory beliefs - false ideas or false consciousness - which can be contrasted with true or scientific knowledge.
- the general process of the production of meanings and ideas.
p. 165 - Brockreide: 'attitudes have homes in ideologies'.
p. 165 - ... for Marxists, the social fact that determines ideology is class, the division of labour.
p. 166 - Intertextuality: the meanings generated by any one text are determined partly by the meanings of other texts to which it appears similar.
p.167 - the assumption that [ideological] values are so basic... so natural, that they do not need referring to is what Barthes (1973) calls 'exomination', and is ideology at work.
p.170 - Barthesian myth ... [that] science is the human ability to understand and dominate nature. ... Counter-myth is amogst ecology/conservationist subculture.
Dominant ideology, history as progress is confronted by a myths that sees history as cyclical, not a progressive development (tradiition).
p. 171 - Signs give myths and values concrete form and in so doing both endorse them and make them public.
p.172 - Ideology in its third meaning is not a static set of values and ways of seeing, but a practice.
Science helps to maintain the current power structure: the highly-educated not only become the dominant class; they come from it, too.
p. 173 - According to Marx, the ideology of the bourgeoise kept the workers, or proletariat, in the state of false consciousness. They were led to understand their social experience by a set of ideas that were not theirs, were opposed to them.
p. 174 - Althusser (1971): ideology is much more effective than Marx gave it credit for because it works fro, within rather than without - it is deeply inscribed in the ways of thinking and ways of living of all classes (e.g., wearing of high heels by women).
p. 176 - Communication is a social process and therefore be ideological; interpellation is a key part of its ideological practice.
p. 176 - Gramsci: hegemony, ideology as struggle. Dominant ideology constantly meets resistances it has to overcome in order to win people's consent to the social order that it is promoting.
p 177 - 'Common sense': the common sense that criminality is a function of a wicked individual rather than the unfairsociety is .. a part of bourgeois ideology
All ideological theories agree that ideology works to maintain class dominationm their differences lie in the ways in which this domination is exercised, the degree of its effectiveness, and the extent of hte resistances it meets.
p. 178 - Gramsci's theory makes social change appear possible, Marx's makes it inevitable, and Althusse's improbable.
p. 181 - 'Displacement': a term that ideological theorists have borrowed from Freudian dream theory: when a topic or anxiety is repressed, either psychologically or ideologically, the concern for it can only be expressed by being displaced on to a legitimate, socially acceptavle topic.
Ideological analysis terms: incorporation ('0don't worry be hippie' - making alternaitve culture a part of mainstream ideology) and commodification (you need commodities produced by current ideology to overcome the troubles).
p. 182 - Capitalism is the system.. that produced commodities, so making commodities seem natural is at the heart of much ideological practice.
Women's bodies and their lives are constructed as a set of problems for which there are commodities to provide solutions.
p. 183 - Barthes' myth of femininity and family work: turning history and society into nature.
Girls 'naturally' become women who 'naturally' become housewives - ruling out the question what sort of women do they become and whose interests are served by this.
Women's magazines: by recognizing herself as the addressee, she is helping to win the consent of herself and other like her to a system that only middle-class men can benefit from in the long run.
p. 184 - Ideological analysis... focuses on the coherence of texts, whether they are telling the coherent story of white, patriarchal capitalism. The theory of hegemony, no the contrary, looks at the weaknesses in texts and argues that some traces of resistance will necessarily remain.
The 'no-make up' look is a strategy to incorporate the resistance of many young women to the ideological practice of painting their faces.
Wearing jeans: 1) symbol of hard work/hard leisure; 2) Symbol of American West - freedom, naturalness, ruggedness, informality, self-sufficiency, tradition; 3) Americanness and social consensus (they are US contribution to the international fashion scene).